A wide range of calorimeters are available to meet different needs of the user. Up to four independent calorimeters can be used simultaneously with TAM IV, to perform repetitive or different types of experiments. TAM IV is totally modular and enables a smaller system to be added to increase sample capacity or functionality. With the addition of a multicalorimeter, holding six independent minicalorimeters, the sample throughput is increased. While the standard version may be sufficient for many applications, the 48 channel version of TAM IV, which enables as many as 48 simultaneous measurements, is recommended for high sample throughput.
- Precision Solution Calorimetry
- Isothermal Titration Calorimetry
- Vacuum/Pressure Calorimeter
The 20 ml Microcalorimeter is a heat flow calorimeter of twin type. It has been designed to hold large samples, (e.g. batteries) and for experiments requiring a large gas phase above the sample. The microcalorimeter can be used with all 20 ml static ampoules and the 20 ml micro reaction system including titration facilities and control of the relative humidity during measurement.
The 20ml Microcalorimeter is also the only calorimeter that can be used with the micro solution ampoule. This ampoule is designed for dissolution of very small amounts of solids (a few mg) in different solvents and is ideal for dissolution of slowly soluble substances. The heat of dissolution and the kinetics of dissolution can be studied.
The Minicalorimeter is a 4 ml Microcalorimeter with a special design to reduce the space occupied by the calorimeter inside the thermostat. The reference is positioned below the sample ampoule which allows up to 48 Minicalorimeters to be positioned in the thermostat. The Minicalorimeter is used in the Multicalorimeter and in the TAM 48 thermostat. It has been designed for increased sample throughput and is recommended for compatibility and stability testing.
The TAM Multicalorimeter contains six Minicalorimeters. It is intended for use with the TAM IV thermostat to increase the sample throughput. The TAM IV thermostat can hold up to 24 individual calorimeters, as well as other types of calorimeters such as a Nanocalorimeter or a Precision Solution Calorimeter. These combinations offer the highest flexibility by combining high sensitivity with high sample throughput. It can be used for all applications designed for individual Minicalorimeters.
The Nanocalorimeter is the most sensitive calorimeter for the TAM IV, and is typically used in the isothermal mode. It combines high sensitivity with excellent baseline stability which makes it ideal for isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in studying molecular interactions. The nanocalorimeter holds all closed ampoules up to 4 ml. For highest sensitivity it is used with the 1 ml titration ampoule and a similar ampoule as reference. This reference ampoule contains an inert substance, (e.g. water or sand) in order to balance the heat capacity of the two sides. Thus, under normal conditions the heat flow associated with the reference ampoule will be negligible.
The Macrocalorimeter is a large volume calorimeter designed for accurate heat flow measurements of samples requiring volumes up to 125 mL. The Macrocalorimeter is of minicalorimeter design with sample above reference, but with a user-changeable reference for optimal performance. The Macrocalorimeter is suitable for battery testing but also for large and heterogeneous sample within food technology and ecological sciences.
Precision Solution Calorimetry
Solution Calorimetry refers to the determination of the heat of dissolution when a solid is dissolved in a liquid, or two liquids are mixed. The TAM Precision Solution Calorimeter is a single position, semi-adiabatic calorimeter for high precision measurements of the heat generated or consumed when a solid or liquid sample is dissolved or diluted into a solvent. The instrument is designed for highest accuracy and precision and is used in general thermodynamic investigations as well as for quantitative analytical measurements of various solid state phases. It is available with a 25 ml or 100 ml vessel, and is intended for use with the TAM IV thermostat up to 80 °C.
Precision Titration Calorimeter
The Precision Titration Calorimeter is a single position, semi-adiabatic calorimeter intended for use with the TAM IV Thermostat. It provides high precision measurements of the heat generated or consumed when a solid or liquid sample is dissolved or diluted into a solvent. Utilizing the same configuration as the Precision Solution Calorimeter but with additional functionality, it is possible to inject small quantities of a solute into the stirred solution in order to investigate binding or complexation phenomena. Repeated injections can be performed by use of a syringe pump.
The Precision Titration Calorimeter is designed for highest accuracy and precision and is used in general thermodynamic investigations as well as for quantitative analytical measurements of various solid state phases.
Isothermal Titration Calorimetry
Isothermal Titration Calorimetry requires the highest level of calorimetric sensitivity and stability, efficient titrant delivery, and a user-friendly platform which facilitates easy cleanup and rapid turnaround. Employing unique and proprietary technology, the TAM IV is the ideal system for Isothermal Titration Calorimetry and excels in the most demanding ITC applications such as ligand binding.
The TAM Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (TAM-ITC) system consists of a nanocalorimeter, 1 ml removable titration ampoule with stirring facilities, and a precision syringe pump for efficient titrant delivery. The TA Instruments nanocalorimeter is the most sensitive calorimeter available for the TAM IV, and can readily detect microjoule level heat flow. In power compensation mode, the response time of the calorimeter is optimized, and the temperature of the sample is held virtually isothermal. This is a major benefit over competitive designs, in which the sample temperature is allowed to drift during titration.
These stainless steel ampoules are designed to hold vacuum or pressure up to 10 bar. The pressure in the ampoule can be monitored at the same time heat flow is measured. This is ideal for the study of samples generating gaseous products during a reaction. The ampoule is available in 4 and 20 ml sizes.